Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, which are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources at global, national and local levels. These determinants can have a significant impact on an individual’s physical and mental health outcomes. Examples of social determinants include access to education, employment, housing, and transportation, as well as social and community networks. Addressing social determinants of health is important for promoting health and reducing health disparities.
What are social determinants of health?
Social determinants of health are the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Examples include access to education, housing, transportation, and healthy food, as well as social factors such as poverty, discrimination, and social support networks. These determinants can have a significant impact on an individual’s health outcomes, and addressing them is important for promoting health equity and improving population health.
There are a variety of efforts being undertaken to address the social determinants of health for rural residents. Some examples include:
Increasing access to healthcare: This can include expanding telehealth services to reach remote areas, recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals in rural communities, and supporting community health clinics.
Improving housing and transportation: This can include programs to build or renovate affordable housing, as well as initiatives to improve transportation infrastructure and services in rural areas.
Addressing poverty and unemployment: This can include providing job training and education programs, as well as increasing access to social safety net programs like SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) and Medicaid
Promoting healthy food access: This can include increasing the availability of healthy food options in rural communities, such as through farmers’ markets and community gardens, and supporting local food systems.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach: This approach empowers communities to identify their own health priorities and work in partnership with researchers and healthcare providers to design and implement interventions.
These efforts are often led by government agencies such as the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), as well as non-profit organizations, community groups and local health departments.
How do poverty and unemployment impact health in rural communities?
Poverty and unemployment can have a significant impact on the health of individuals and communities in rural areas. Some ways in which poverty and unemployment can affect health in rural communities include:
Limited access to healthcare: People living in poverty may not have access to adequate healthcare, including preventive care, screenings, and treatments. This can lead to poor health outcomes and chronic conditions.
Poor housing and living conditions: People living in poverty may not have access to safe, affordable housing. This can lead to overcrowding, poor sanitation, and exposure to environmental hazards, which can negatively impact health.
Lack of access to healthy food: People living in poverty may not have access to healthy food options, which can lead to poor nutrition and diet-related health problems.
Stress and mental health problems: Living in poverty can be stressful, which can lead to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
Limited access to education and job training: People living in poverty may not have access to education and job training, which can limit their ability to find and maintain employment.
Unemployment can also contribute to poverty and lead to similar impacts on health. Additionally, long-term unemployment can also lead to social isolation, loss of identity, and hopelessness, which can affect mental health negatively.
Overall, poverty and unemployment can create a cycle of poor health and limited opportunities for improvement, making it difficult for individuals and communities in rural areas to break out of poverty and achieve better health outcomes.